ISSN: 2582-788X (Online)
COVID-19 and the Sustainability of Agricultural Extension Models
Agricultural extension and advisory services in information and technology dissemination and delivery are critical in a developing country’s food security and sustainability. Without extension service provision, the productivity and production smallholder farmers are experiencing would have been much lower, and current global hunger and malnutrition worse. This paper assesses the effects of COVID-19 on the sustainability of agricultural extension models/approaches for smallholder farmers in developing countries. Over 60 papers were reviewed covering 2019-2021, commencing with the disease outbreak in China. Based on characteristics and usage, the findings indicate most reviewed extension models were disrupted. No single model was entirely disbanded as the impact of COVID-19 was being felt. However, each model incorporated a digital means of communication to keep farmers and service providers in touch. There is considerable criticism around the inadequacy of these extension techniques in advancing the agenda for smallholder farming’s long-term viability that needs to be addressed.