ISSN: 2582-788X (Online)
Comparative study of in-vitro hypoglycemic activity of saponin and flavonoid extracts of Luffa cylindrica L.
Diabetes mellitus is a long-lasting metabolic disorder in which the use of carbohydrate is impaired and is caused by loss of insulin or insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine hypoglycemic activity of crude saponin and flavonoid extracts of Luffa cylindrica L. leaf on alpha-glucosidase enzyme inhibition. Phytochemical analysis of aqueous leaf extract, extraction of crude flavonoid and saponin extracts of L. cylindrica were carried out using standard procedures. Hypoglycemic activity of crude saponin and flavonoid extracts were determined by in vitro alpha-glucosidase enzyme inhibition. The qualitative phytochemical composition showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, saponins and terpenoids while the quantitative phytochemical compositions indicated that flavonoids had the highest concentration of 437.18±0.01mg/100g and terpenoids had the least concentration of 72.88±0.33mg/100g. There was a high significant (p<0.05) inhibitory activity of the extracts on alpha-glucosidase enzyme with increase in concentration. Saponins had higher percentage inhibition of 53.32±0.15 % (IC50 49.12±0.35 μg/mL) while flavonoids had (significant) lower inhibition of 44.13±0.30 % (IC50 52.76±0.34 μg/mL) at 200 µg/ml. Metformin percentage inhibition (84.82±0.15 % with IC50 35.57±0.24 μg/mL) was significantly higher than the two extracts at 200μg/ml. The results from this study suggest that saponins and flavonoids extracted from ethanol leaf extract of Luffa cylindrica had some hypoglycemic activity which supports its traditional usage in the management of diabetes and its complications