ISSN: 2582-788X (Online)
Comparative studies on in vitro anti-diabetic activities of saponin and flavonoid extracts of Jatropha gossipifolia
Diabetes mellitus is the most important disease involving the endocrine pancreas. It is a medical disorder characterized by varying or persistent hyperglycaemia with or without glycosuria. Diabetes is also a leading factor in causing heart disease, stroke and kidney damages. The recommendation of WHO about the diabetes has led to a rise in investigations of medicinal plants for hypoglycaemic agents. The main purpose of this research was to compare the in vitro anti-diabetic activity of saponin and flavonoid extracts of Jatropha gossipifolia. The quantitative phytochemical analysis of J. gossipifolia aqueous extract was determined using spectrophotometric method. The alpha-glycosidase inhibitory activity of J. gossipifolia flavonoid and saponin extracts was also deduced using standard in vitro inhibition assay and metformin was used as a positive control. The quantitative phytochemical analysis recorded highest (276.15±134.57 mg/100 g) and lowest (43.56 ± 0.02 mg/100 g) concentrations in flavonoid and saponin respectively. In in vitro anti-diabetic assay, maximum enzyme inhibition (93.07±0.92%) was recorded in flavonoid extract at highest concentration (100 ug/mL) with IC50 of 11.83 ± 0.14 µg/mL which was found to be more active than the standard drug (metformin). However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the % inhibition at 60 ug/mL between the extracts and the standard (metformin). This study suggests that, the presence of bioactive compounds could be responsible for the extract to exhibit the dose-dependent action by increasing the inhibitory effects of alpha-glycosidase. Therefore, J. gossipifolia flavonoid and saponin extracts could be used as alternative herbal drug in reducing the level of glucose in diabetic patients.