ISSN: 2582-788X (Online)
Clinical Significance of Albumin: Structure, Function and Role in Different Pathophysiological States
Albumin is abundant protein in the human plasma. It is monomeric, multi-domain protein that causes oncotic pressure and involve in fluid distribution between the body compartments. It belongs to transport protein family and consist of single chain of 585 amino acids with molecular weight 66.5kDa. In healthy adults’ its normal range is 3.5-5.5 g/dl mainly synthesize in hepatocytes. Its binding property impart significant role in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of many drugs and important molecules. Alteration in blood composition reflect disease status mainly protein and nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) have used as a biomarker. Protein biomarker has significant importance due to small pool of protein, capitalize for diagnosis of disease by measuring these changing concentration. Albumin as a protein has the capacity to act as markers for the detection and monitoring of disease, its progression, prognosis, or assess the clinical status of patients. Hypoalbuminemia is observed in hypovolemic shock, burns, surgical loss of blood, trauma, hemorrhage, cardiopulmonary bypass, acute respiratory distress syndrome, hemodialysis, gastric tract disorder, acute and chronic liver diseases, chronic kidney disease and end stage renal failure. But hyeralbuminemia is only observed in dehydration. Hypoalbuminemia increases complications and long-term mortality in many diseases.