ISSN: 2582-788X (Online)
Characterization and classification of normal soils of Kapurthala district, Punjab, India
The study was carried out in the Kapurthala district of Punjab, North-West of India. The aim of the study was to evaluate the macro morphological, physical and chemical characteristics normal soils in Kapurthala district, five profile samples were collected from five villages, the macro morphological characteristics of samples were studied in the field, location of all the samples were recorded with help of GPS, and horizon wise samples were collected for further study in laboratory, the pH of these soils in epipedon ranged from 7.5 to 9.5, The electrical conductivity (EC) of these soils was below 1 dS m-1. Organic carbon of these soils in epipedon ranged from 0.2 per cent to 0.93 per cent, where in subsurface horizons it ranged from 0.06 per cent to 0.52 per cent. The available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of these soils ranged from 231.2 kg/ha to 627.2 kg/ha, 84.0 kg/ha to 107.9 kg/ha, and 263.2 kg/ha to 392.0 kg/ha respectively in the epipedon. CEC in these soils ranged from 3.72 comlc/kg to 11.60 comlc/kg. Accordingly exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, Na and K) were evaluated in comlc/kg of soil. Exchangeable sodium percentage of these soils was ranged between 5.5 and 40.8. Saturation percentage of these soils ranged from 30.90 to 44.40 in epipedon. Accordingly, normal soils of Kapurthala district were extracted with the help of vacuum pump and the composition of soil saturation paste such as pHs, ECe, Ca++,Mg++, Na+, K+, HCO3-, CO3–, Cl- and SO4– were examined. Soil texture of these soils was clay loam, sandy clay loam, sandy loam and loam, loamy sand, and sand respectively. Moreover, normal soils of Kapurthala district classified as per Soil Taxonomy (2015) up to family level. These soils qualified under Inceptisols and Entisols suborders.